SHX7 : for300-go_deeper

We have been able to capture some computer artifacts from a criminal cell and we are trying to access some accounts for more information to try to stop the attacks. But they use password management service e we could not find the files and passwords. You can help us with?

Solution

$ wget https://shellter-static.s3.amazonaws.com/media/files/dd87da10-e4e0-48b5-8420-beae1316ba4f.7z

Saving to: ‘dd87da10-e4e0-48b5-8420-beae1316ba4f.7z’

dd87da10-e4e0-48b5-8420-beae131 100%[======================================================>] 151.42M  7.55MB/s    in 25s

$ 7z x dd87da10-e4e0-48b5-8420-beae1316ba4f.7z
$ file img.vmem 
img.vmem: data  

Well, Volatility can help us w/ this memory dump..

volatility imageinfo -f img.vmem  

This is a Windows X86 memory dump, let's check all process running..

volatility -f img.vmem --profile=Win81U1x86 psscan  

Nice, there's a KeePass.exe and challenge description says something about password management service.

Maybe the idea behind this is find a way to leak the keepass .kdbx database and his master password from memory.

First thing to do is a dump of the memory allocated for pid=3884 KeePass.exe

volatility -f img.vmem --profile=Win81U1x86 memdump -p 3884 -D dump  

Now instead a 512mb dump, we now have only 199mb to analyze..

So, if there's a keepass2 database loaded into memory, then you have a XML header too..

How did I know this? reading the frickn' manual

Strings can give some clue..

strings -n 5 img.vmem > strings  

Just search for XML default header <?xml

Nice! our encrypted database shx7.kdbx can be found at memory, from this XML you can leak all information about the .kdbx file, if its using a Key file you can leak his path too, but it's not our case..

As you can see, here is our encrypted flag.

<String>  
<Value>Flag</Value>  
<Key>Password</Key>  
<Value Protected="True">MuyOAKBXFhF3w8QoPhVTJ3ao1k4DOp/ScPWxzSTggZGBllE=</Value>  

Now we still need:

  • Leak the master password from memory (maybe its on clipboard?)
  • Leak the entire shx7.kdbx keepass database from memory (not only the XML)

Still analyzing strings, and Wow! luckly the master password was copied in the memory some entries before the XML of the database ..

Now with the password.. we need to find a way to dump the entire .kdbx from memory.

Start by greping dumpfile for the kdbx signature...

Remember?

       |   kdb      |  kdbx pre-rel | kdbx relese |
byte 1 | 0x9aa2d903 | 0x9aa2d903    | 0x9aa2d903  |  
byte 2 | 0xb54bfb65 | 0xb54bfb66    | 0xb54bfb67  |  

More details from here: https://gist.github.com/msmuenchen/9318327

Well, 0x9aa2d903 0xb54bfb67 because the Little endian, in memory will appear like this d903 9aa2 fb67 b54b.

Now back to 3884.dmp(KeePass.exe memorydump) and grep for this..

hexdump 3884.dmp | grep "d903 9aa2 fb67 b54b"  

Omg, we have a problem here.. there's more than one entry of this file at memory, we need to extract the correct one or it will be a corrupted database.

Launch your preferred hex editor, I like wXhexEditor.

Search by our hex kdbx file signature 03 D9 A2 9A 67 FB 4B B5

9 entries of shx7.kdbx on memory.

Look for a entry that has not blank spaces breaking the header and file footer.. select and dump w/ right mouse button..

Perfect!

Now, launch keepass2 and open the password database w/ master password! (there's a version of keepass2 on Linux emulated w/ mono).

keepass2 shx7.kdbx  

Awesome challenge shellterlabs!
I really liked this one :)

References

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